In unaccelerated flight (steady flight) the opposing forces are in equilibrium. Principles of flight 7. At high angles of attack, the CP moves forward, while at low angles of attack the CP moves aft. Thinking of becoming a pilot? principles Of Flight Lesson Plan: Paper Glider Measurement. } // These are seen in high-speed aircraft having symmetrical wings, or on symmetrical rotor blades for many helicopters whose upper and lower surfaces are identical. Aviation Information comes from a variety of sources which requires a lifetime of dedication to perfect. The basic principles of flight, which include many elementary physics concepts, can be easily observed in the structure of an airplane. Principle and Newton’s first and third laws of motion. PRINCIPLESOF FLIGHT. Weight (5 min) 4. document.write(year) // The shape of an airfoil, as well as changes in the AOA, affects the production of lift. You might even want to reference the chart that the class made together. Professional CFI Lesson Plans » Professional CFI Lesson Plans Learning Outcome . engine cowlings, antennas, etc. PRINCIPLES : Forces Acting on An Airplane: ... Each of the named of the airfoil is designed to perform a specific function in the flight of the airplane. Present lecture 3. due to its shape and airflow around it, Turbulent wake caused by separation of airflow (burbling) created by the shape of the aircraft, When the air has to separate to move around a moving aircraft and its components, it eventually rejoins after passing the body, Newer aircraft are generally made with consideration to this by fairings along the fuselage so that turbulence and form drag is reduced [Figure 5-7], Generated by the collision of air-streams creating eddy currents, turbulence, or restrictions to smooth flow, The most interference drag is created when two surfaces meet at perpendicular angles, The drag of each item individually, added to that of the aircraft, are less than that of the two items when allowed to interfere with one another, If a jet fighter carries two identical wing tanks, the overall drag is greater than the sum of the individual tanks because both of these create and generate interference drag, Fairings and distance between lifting surfaces and external components (such as radar antennas hung from wings) reduce interference drag. Flight occurs from a combination of many physical principles, Daniel Bernoulli: fluid dynamics; increased speed creates decrease in pressure, Newton’s third law: every action has an equal and opposite reaction. PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-803/PG-001, Chapter 4. 4. Faster air from above the airfoil moves downward. IMPORTANCE It is important for cadets to learn and identify the four forces that act upon an aircraft so that they will understand the principles of flight by which an aircraft operates. Recognize what the airplane is doing by referencing the noseʼs appearance on the horizon (the attitude). On top of that, it takes energy for your wings to create downwash and vortices, and that energy creates drag, The greater the size and strength of the vortices and consequent downwash component on the net airflow over the airfoil, the greater the induced drag effect becomes. 4-2 1500 Figure 4-1. Think of a hand being placed outside the car window at a high speed. Lesson 2-2a Principles of Flight - Lesson 2-2a Principles of Flight | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view . Form drag: aircraft’s shape and airflow around it, e.g. Copyright © Ground operations: cockpit management, engine start, runup 3. The CFI, or Flight Instructor Notebook, is an instructor's guide to navigating the sea of resources in order to provide useful guidance for their students and themselves. FORCES ACTING ON THE AIRPLANE IN FLIGHT When in flight, there are certain forces acting on the airplane. As a result of this change, the velocity about the object changes in both magnitude and direction, in turn resulting in a measurable velocity force and direction, AOA is fundamental to understanding many aspects of airplane performance, stability, and control, AoA is the acute angle measured between the relative wind, or flight path and the chord of the airfoil [, Lift created (or reduced in the case of negative AoA) is measured with the, Every airplane has an angle of attack where maximum lift occurs (, The magnitude of the force of lift is directly proportional to the density of the air, the area of the wings, the airspeed, shape, and AoA, Total lift must overcome the total weight of the aircraft, which is comprised of the actual weight and the tail-down force used to control the aircraft's pitch attitude, While the biggest consideration for producing lift involves the air flowing over and under the wing, there is a third dimension to consider, Consider the tip of the airfoil also has an aerodynamic effect, In order to equalize pressure, the high pressure area on the bottom of an airfoil pushes around the tip to the low-pressure area on the top [, This action creates a rotating flow called a tip vortex, or wingtip vortices, This downwash extends back to the trailing edge of the airfoil, reducing lift for the affected portion of the airfoil, Manufacturers have developed different methods to counteract this action, Winglets can be added to the tip of an airfoil to reduce this flow (essentially decrease induced drag), The winglets act as a dam preventing the vortex from forming, Winglets can be on the top or bottom of the airfoil, Another method of countering the flow is to taper the airfoil tip, reducing the pressure differential and smoothing the airflow around the tip, Weight is simply the force of gravity on the aircraft which acts vertically through the, It is the combined load of the aircraft itself, the crew, the fuel, and the cargo or baggage, Weight varies based on load, passengers, and fuel, A Load is essentially the back pressure on the control stick required, the, Opposing lift, as an aircraft is descending, Weight has a definite relationship to lift, This relationship is simple, but important in understanding the aerodynamics of flying, Lift is the upward force on the wing acting perpendicular to the relative wind and perpendicular to the aircraft's lateral axis, Lift is required to counteract the aircraft's weight, In stabilized level flight, when the lift force is equal to the weight force, the aircraft is in a state of equilibrium and neither accelerates upward or downward, If lift becomes less than weight, the vertical speed will decrease, When lift is greater than weight, the vertical speed will increase, Thrust is the forward acting force that opposes drag and propels the airplane forward, It is through excesses or deficits of thrust that accelerations and decelerations can occur, The aircraft will continue to speed up/slow down until thrust again equals drag at which point the airspeed will stabilize, In powered aircraft, thrust is achieved through the powerplant, be it a propeller, rotor, or turbine, With a glider, thrust is created through the conversion of potential energy (altitude) to kinetic energy (airspeed) by pitching toward the ground, This law may be expressed by F = MA (Force equals Mass times Acceleration), for example, speeding up, slowing down, entering climbs or descents, and turning, Acts parallel to the center of thrust to overcome drag, F = MA, As a general rule, it is said to act parallel to the, Propeller & rotor driven aircraft are generally rated in horsepower, Turbine driven aircraft are generally rated in in pounds, Increasing engine power, increases thrust (now exceeding drag), thereby accelerating the aircraft, As long as the thrust continues to be greater than the drag, the aircraft continues to accelerate, When drag equals thrust, the aircraft flies at a constant airspeed, Engine power is reduced, lessoning thrust, thereby decelerating the aircraft, As long as the thrust is less than the drag, the aircraft continues to decelerate, To a point, as the aircraft slows down, the drag force will also decrease, The aircraft will continue to slow down until thrust again equals drag at which point the airspeed will stabilize, The pilot coordinates AOA and thrust in all speed regimes if the aircraft is to be held in level flight, Remember, (for a given airfoil shape) lift varies with the AOA and airspeed, Therefore, a large AOA at low airspeeds produces an equal amount of lift at high airspeeds with a low AOA. : quality of an aircraft can achieve lift because of the air stream especially with regard flightpath! - pressure is a total of 34 pages and contains a Complete lesson teaching! 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